Google Glaciers & Icebergs - Nordic Landscapes : Photography by Nicolas Lietaer

Nordic Landscapes : Photograpy by Nicolas Lietaer

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Glacier stream, Norway
Glacier stream, Norway. There are a total of 1600 glaciers in Norway, covering 1% of the mainland. Hydroelectric power generation provides 98% of the electricity in Norway and 15% of that energy comes from glacier fed streams.

Breiđamerkurjökull glacier, Iceland
Breiđamerkurjökull glacier, Iceland. Breiđamerkurjökull is a 15 km (9 miles) wide glacier tongue that terminates in a broad flat plain with a number of lakes. Icebergs break away from the tongue of the glacier and float in a 600 m (2000 ft) deep lagoon that covers an area of 17 km˛ (7 mi˛).

Icebergs on the black lava sand, Iceland
Icebergs on the beach, Iceland. Large chucks of ice drift into the open sea at low tide and are then washed ashore on the black lava beaches near Jökulsárlón.

Giant icebergs, Iceland
Giant icebergs, Iceland. The black patterns in the ice are due to sediment picked up by the glacier creeping over land. Icebergs are formed when giant chunks of a glacier break off and float in the water.

Styggedalsbreen glacier, Norway
Styggedalsbreen glacier, Norway. A terminal end moraine is a ridge of soil and rock debris deposited at the front of a glacier. Styggedalsbreen glacier has in the last two decades been forming terminal end moraines of up to 6 meter high. The moraines indicate the maximum advance of the glacier.

Glacier front in Jostedalen, Norway
Glacier front in Jostedalen, Norway. Glaciers are massive rivers of ice that grind down mountains, carve out lakes, scatter strange rock formations across the countryside and reduce solid rock to fine dust.

The blue ice of Nigardsbreen glacier, Norway
The blue ice of Nigardsbreen glacier, Norway. Glaciers are made up of fallen snow that over many years compresses into thick glacial ice masses, and the great pressure forced air out. Dense ice absorbs every other color of the spectrum except blue, which gives it its characteristic color.

Zodiac boats at Jökulsárlón, Iceland
Zodiac boats at Jökulsárlón, Iceland. Zodiac tours are offered on the Jökulsárlón ice lagoon. The zodiacs allow to get very close to the actual glacier front.

Glacier at sunset, Iceland
Glacier at sunset, Iceland. In photography, the "golden hour" is the first and last hour of sunlight in the day, known for producing great photographs due to the quality of the light during that time of the day.

Fjallsárlón glacier lake, Iceland
Fjallsárlón glacier lake, Iceland. Fjallsárlón is a glacier lake at the southern tip of Europe's largest icecap, Vatnajökull. Fjallsjökull glacier reaches down into the lake which causes large icebergs to calve off.

Icebergs on black sand beach, Iceland
Icebergs on black sand beach, Iceland. Icebergs coming from the Jökulsárlón glacier lagoon become stranded on the nearby black lava beaches.

Glacier Fĺbergstřlsbreen, Norway
Glacier Fĺbergstřlsbreen, Norway. Located in the valley next to the famous Nigardsbreen glacier, the glacier Fĺbergstřlsbreen is much less visited. It is however relatively easily accessible by a three kilometre hike from the road to the glacier front.

Břdalsbreen glacier, Norway
Břdalsbreen glacier, Norway. Břdalsbreen is one of the many glacier arms coming down from the Jostedalsbreen icecap. In the years 1905 and 1936, the snow capped mountains surrounding the Břdalen valley caused large avalanches that destroyed most of the settlements in the valley.

Vatnajökul icecap in Southern Iceland
Vatnajökul icecap in Southern Iceland. Approximately 11 % of Iceland's total surface is covered by glaciers. The largest ice caps and glaciers are located in the South and central highlands.

Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland
Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland. An ice cap is defined as an ice mass that covers a surface of maximum 50 000 km2. Masses of ice that cover an even larger surface are called ice sheets or continental glacier. Currently the only ice sheets are in Antarctica and Greenland.

The land of fire and ice, Iceland
The land of fire and ice, Iceland. Many of Iceland's glaciers are on top of active volcanoes. When the volcanoes erupt, the glacier ice above them melts very quickly, creating devastating flood surges called jökulhlaup.

Jökulsárlón lagoon, Iceland
Jökulsárlón lagoon, Iceland. In the evenings, seals can be seen patrolling the icy waters of Jökulsárlón glacial lagoon. At the mouth of the lagoon they can catch herring, trout, salmon and other fishes and krill.

Icebergs, Southern Iceland
Icebergs, Southern Iceland. The expression "tip of the iceberg" comes from the fact that typically only about 10 % of an iceberg can be seen above sea level. This is due to the fact that pure ice has a density of about 90 % of that of seawater.

Sunset on Smřrstabbreen glacier, Norway
Icebergs from the Breiđamerkurjökull glacier, Iceland. The huge blocks of ice that calve from the glacier are typically about 30 meters (98 ft) high. The black sediment in the ice is ash from ancient volcanic eruptions.

Jökulsárlón glacial lagoon, Iceland
Jökulsárlón glacial lagoon, Iceland. The land surrounding the Breiđamerkurjökull glacier was settled around 870-930 AD. There were two farms, Fjall and Breiđa, both of which were devastated by the advancing glacier front around the year 1700. Until this day, the ruins of the farms remain buried under the ice.

Sunset on Smřrstabbreen glacier, Norway
Sunset on Smřrstabbreen glacier, Norway. With a surface of 25 km2, Smřrstabbreen is the largest glacier of Jotunheimen national park. The glacier is popular for glacier hiking and ice climbing. From the end of June to the beginning of September there are daily guided tours on the glacier from the Krossbu mountain lodge to the Leirvassbu lodge.

Nigardsbreen glacier, Norway
Nigardsbreen glacier, Norway. Glaciers consist of large glacial ice masses that continuously move forward due to gravity, like a river of ice. How fast the ice moves varies from centimeters to tens of meters per day. When different parts of a glacier move at different speeds, crevasses are created in the ice.

Tourist boat amongst icebergs, Iceland
Tourist boat amongst icebergs, Iceland. Icebergs are very dangerous to ships, and many ships have sunk after crashing into icebergs. The most famous one was the RMS Titanic which struck a small to medium sized iceberg on the evening of 14 April, 1912.

Jökulsárlón glacial lake, Iceland
Jökulsárlón glacial lake, Iceland. During the little ice age in Europe, from the 17th to the 19th century, the glacier Breidamerkurjokull advanced until a point only 1 km away from the southern coast. However, around 1934 the glacier started to retreat, leaving behind a 15 km2 lagoon filled with icebergs.

Jökulsárlón glacial lagoon, Iceland
Jökulsárlón glacial lagoon, Iceland. Jökulsárlón glacier lagoon is filled with icebergs calving off from the largest glacier in Europe, Vatnajökull. The spectacular scenery of Jökulsárlón has been used to shoot scenes for many movies, including several Bond movies, Tomb Raider and Batman.

Icebergs on the shore, Iceland
Icebergs on the shore, Iceland. If you use ice cubes from an iceberg in your drink, it is likely to pop or hiss as the ice lets out gases that have been trapped and compressed for thousands of years. Analyzing trapped air in ice allows to study the climatic conditions from hundreds of thousands of years ago.

Boat trip on the Jökulsárlón glacier lagoon, Iceland
Boat trip on the Jökulsárlón glacier lagoon, Iceland. As icebergs melt their centre of gravity can change which can cause them to roll over and create waves that are large enough to sink a boat.